RV Spring Preparation Checklist

Your RV has been sitting idle over the winter. Now the early signs of spring are here and it’s time to take it out of storage and prepare the coach and chassis for this years camping season. If you’re like me, you want to have some type of logical sequence to follow rather then haphazardly checking the unit out. I made a simple checklist to use so that nothing is overlooked. I prefer to do the majority of spring preparation myself. If you’re more comfortable having someone else do it you can schedule an appointment with a reputable RV service center to have it done.

* Depending on how your unit was winterized it will need to be de-winterized. If you used non-toxic RV antifreeze you need to run fresh water through the entire system until all traces of antifreeze are gone. To remove it from the 12-volt water pump add water to the fresh water-holding tank, turn the pump on and open all water faucets. When the antifreeze is out of the system turn the pump off and take the water heater out of the by-pass mode (if applicable). Re-install any water filter cartridges you removed for storage.

* At this point I like to sanitize the water system. Make sure all of the drains are closed and drain plugs are installed. Take a quarter cup of household bleach for every fifteen gallons of water your fresh water tank holds. Mix the bleach with water into a one-gallon container and pour it into the fresh water holding tank. Fill the fresh water holding tank completely full of water. Turn the water pump on and open all faucets, run water until you smell the bleach. Close the faucets and let it sit for at least twelve hours. Drain all of the water and re-fill the tank with fresh water. Turn the pump on and open all faucets until you no longer smell bleach. It may be necessary to repeat this process to eliminate all signs of the bleach.

* With the water system under pressure inspect for water leaks. Check the operation of the toilet.

* Wash the unit thoroughly. This is a good time to inspect the roof and body seams, and window sealants for cracking that would allow water to get in. Consult a dealer for sealants compatible with these materials.

* Inspect the operation of the awning and clean the awning fabric as required.

* Inspect the tires for signs of dry rot. Inflate all tires to the recommended COLD tire pressure.

* Lubricate all hinges and locks with spray lubricant.

* Remove any tape or protective covering you may have put over LP gas vents to keep insects and rodents out. Check any mousetraps you may have put out. Open all doors and compartments and check for rodent intrusion and water damage.

* Inspect and clean the interior.

* Plug in any appliances that you unplugged for storage and replace any dry cell batteries you may have removed. This is a good time to put new batteries in items like smoke alarms.

* Test the operation of the carbon monoxide alarm, LP gas leak detector and smoke alarm.

* Check the fire extinguisher. Be sure it is fully charged.

* Reset any breakers you may have turned off. If you removed any fuses for storage re-install them.

* Clean or replace air conditioner filters if it wasn’t done prior to storage and remove any covers that were put over air conditioners.

* Open vents and windows and air the unit out.

* If you removed the coach and chassis batteries for storage install them. Whether they were removed or not check the electrolyte levels, clean the terminals and clamps, and check the charge level in all batteries. Recharge batteries as necessary.

* Check the operation of the electric steps if applicable. Lubricate step mechanism.

* Test the operation of the hydraulic jacks if applicable. Check hydraulic fluid level.

* Test the operation of the back up camera and monitor if applicable.

* If you didn’t change the oil and filters in the generator prior to storage this is a good time to do it. Inspect the generator exhaust system for damage prior to starting. Start and run the generator for two hours with at least a half rated load on it. Consult the generators owner manual for load ratings.

* Turn the generator off and plug the unit into shore power. Turn the refrigerator on in the electric mode. Allow sufficient time to cool and check for proper operation.

* Check all 12-volt interior lights and accessories.

* Test the monitor panel for proper operation.

* Check the operation of slide outs if applicable.

* Check the remaining 120-volt appliances for proper operation.

* Test the Ground Fault Interrupter (GFI) for proper operation.

* Turn the refrigerator off, leave the doors open and allow sufficient time for it to get to room temperature so it can be checked in the gas mode.

* Before I use the LP gas system I have a leak test and gas operating pressure test preformed. A qualified technician with the proper equipment should do these tests.

* After this is accomplished turn the LP gas valve on and check the operation of all LP gas appliances. Be sure the water heater is full of water before testing the water heater. If a gas appliance is not operating properly have it inspected by a qualified technician. Insects are attracted to the odorant added to LP gas and build nests that can affect the appliance from operating properly.

* If your unit was in long-term storage and you didn’t change the engine oil and filter prior to storage this would be a good time to do it.

* Check all fluid levels in transmission, power steering, engine coolant, engine oil, windshield washer and brakes. Consult vehicle owners manual.

* Start the engine and check for proper readings on all gauges. Check for proper operation of dash air conditioner.

* Perform a complete chassis lubrication if it wasn’t done prior to storage.

* Check the condition of windshield wiper blades and replace them if necessary.

* Check the operation of all chassis lights.

* Make sure the vehicle emissions/inspection sticker is up to date.

* In addition to this if you have a pop-up or travel trailer the wheel bearings and brakes (if equipped) should be inspected at least once annually. Inspect any canvas for dry rot and tears; inspect all hitch work and the coupler for damage. Inspect the breakaway switch and pigtail for proper operation.

Happy Camping ,


Copyright 2006 by Mark J. Polk owner of RV Education 101

What Everybody Ought to Know About iPad Kiosks and How Secure They Are

Interactivity is the name of the game. Whether it is retail stores, wireless operators, libraries, conferences and events or banks, hotels, airlines, travel agents and restaurants, Customers get to find whatever information they need from the ever popular iPad. In all such establishments’ one can find one or may be more of these tablets that present information on demand and raise levels of customer satisfaction. However, the tablet must be presented in a manner that makes its use easy. It is also important to keep the iPad fully secured to guard against anyone simply putting it into his bag and walking off.

The solution is a variety of stands and enclosures for the iPad. Safe and secure iPad kiosks are available in various types and configurations. Some tablet stands have a base and a goose neck with clamping facility to hold the device. Some can be mounted on walls and enclose the tablet from sides with some tilt-swivel features. Some have grips with quick release features. Retail counters that actually sell iPads must make them available for demo purposes and the device must also be kept secure. IT should be easy for a prospective buyer to explore features of the device. The kiosk is, in effect, a holder that has some clamping features and a swivel-tilt base to hold the iPad at a convenient angle for users to try it out. From the seller’s perspective, security of the device is important. Therefore, additional security electronic features may be incorporated that sound an alarm should anyone attempt to detach the tablet. Such stands may also have inbuilt chargers to keep the device fully powered up all the time. Even hotels, restaurants, airline booking counters, travel agents, museums, libraries and hospitals that make use of such stands for tablets focus on keeping the tablet protected against theft.

These are the main features to look for when one considers suitable kiosks for tablets like iPads as an interactivity point. The tablet may contain valuable data and it is necessary to keep it fully secured in a mechanical as well as electronic way, the last of which is important for retail stores with high footfalls. In such environments the stands are equipped with an alarm sensor.

Aesthetics also play an important role. The kiosk must not only be lightweight and slimline but it must have suitable aesthetics to suit decors of the environment where the iPads will be used. Ergonomics is another factor to consider when buying safe and secure stands for iPads. Large spaces like libraries and museums may need to present the iPad in a different way. In such instances a free standing floor stand with an articulating or tilt and swivel facility for the holder. The holder may have secure clamps or grips to keep the iPad fully secured against attempts to remove it.

iPads are expensive and the data they contain may be worth much more. Keeping it fully secured while providing ease of access is important for libraries, hotels and similar institutions. New iPads in stores, if stolen, mean a loss for the store owner and security clamps or electronic cum mechanical stands are the perfect solution to let customers play with the tablet and keep it protected at the same time.

Those Things Which Can not Be Shaken May Remain – St James Cathedral Church


Canada's history is timelessly preserved in some of the most beautiful architecture in Toronto. These living artifacts built with wood, stone, brick and mortar over the past 200 years continue to speak to us. Yet the very act of observation changes this state because we experience our own version of the ephemeral rattling of our economy, morality, scientific thought, spiritual currency – continuing tilting the axis of human edifice.

Church Street has always been a gathering place. Sanctuary to new immigrants, the homeless, the curious and the faithful. St. James Cathedral Church was built on soil steeped in blood from centuries past – providing shelter for the wounded and the dead during the War of 1812.

The great human struggle continues, as global economic upheaval rattles the very senses of 21st Century progress. The Occupy Movement chose this destination to set-up camp in 2011, a defining moment in Toronto's civic stewardship.

On Canada's 145th birthday and the bicentennial of the War of 1812, I packed my camera and trekked the muddy streets of York, curious to discover the ancestral path of my forefathers. I was looking for Schrodinger's cat. Instead, I found Toronto.

The Little Muddy York that could

In 1791 Canada was separated into Upper and Lower Canada. Lieutenant Governor Simcoe commandly named to name the capital York, although mapmakers in Britain had designated it Fort Toronto as early as the 1720's. In 1787, Governor General Lord Dorchester arranged the 'Toronto Purchase' from the Missisaugas Ojibway (Anishinabe) Nation, an area covering today's Metropolitan Toronto and York Region. Thus, Toronto was born. Additional ratione for this name change was that York could be confused with New York and other Yorks, and because of its nicknames (Muddy York and Little York).

It seems that we have not lost our hankering to be a 'little New York'. Steps away from St. George James Cathedral Church, financial towers reach for the sky – bold minimalist glass and steel icons – casting the shadows of a post-modern world on a city that has not lost sight of the heavens.

"The grounds of St. James' Cathedral have served many purposes – a place of worship, a cemetery, and even a public park. military hospital by the British and Canadian forces during the heaviest fighting of the War of 1812. At the outbreak of war against the United States on June 18th, 1812, military infrastructure in Upper Canada was minimal. rudimentary hospital facilities, these were small buildings, suitable only for the routine demands of a peacetime garrison. As military forces and casualties increased, the town of York became a key response point for the sick and wounded personnel due to its strategic and political importance as the capital of Upper Canada. The town's only church was to play a major role in the treatment of these casualties. "

Notes taken from report, "A Place of Mercy and Medicine: 'The Church' at York as a Military Field Hospital, 1813-1815" Gareth Newfield, Research Fellow, Canadian War Museum, Ottawa

Following the war of 1812, Toronto experienced rapid growth, all the while the expanding Anglican congresses worshiped in a small Georgian style wooden structure that was built on Church Street. It was originally replaced by a stone church with a tower. It would burn down in 1849. John Strachan, first Bishop of Toronto would lead an international competition to design a Gothic-styled cathedral. At that time most of the city's population of 18,000 lived south of Queen Street, steps away from where this church stands today.

The Cathedral Church of St. James – 1853

The church that stands today was built of local brick and the finest Ohio stone. The spire, the pinnacles and porches were trademark Henry Langley designs – Canadian born, apprenticed to Scottish architect William Hay, Langley's legacy included the building of 70 churches across Ontario, and his Toronto landmarks that remain include the Metropolitan United Church, St. Louis. Luke's United Church, and St. Michael's College. Langley was installed as the first chair of the Department of Architecture at the University of Toronto, where he taught during the 1880s and 1890s.

Those things which can not be shook may remain – 2011

In 2011, these very same grounds would become the central gathering place and temporary camp for the Occupy Movement, as part of a worldwide response to increasing economic disparity.The occupation lasted a few short months, and while the St.. James Cathedral Church did not encourage this act of protest, it treated the Protesters with dignity and respect.

"We must recognize that there is a worldwide increase in the socio-economic imbalance that exists. It is this that has led to the formation of the Occupational movement. It is a part of the larger picture. We are in a time of significant transition. remain (Hebrews 12:27).

The Very Reverend Douglas A. Stoute

In this same year, members of the Ancient Society of College Youths (ASCY) came to Toronto to ring the Bells of Old York at the Cathedral. The Society, based in London, England was founded in 1637. The bells pealed for 3.5 hours straight, appealing hundreds to St.. James Park for this spiritual sojourn.Installed in 1865, one hundred feet high in the tower and spire which crowns St. Louis. James' Cathedral is a peal of twelve change-ringing bells (the only one in Canada, and one of only two installations in North America).

Bats in the Belfry

A unique presence in the Cathedral's musical life, The Bells of Old York are run by members of The St. Louis. James' Cathedral Guild of Change Ringers before the 11 am service on Sundays, beginning as soon as the 9 am service has ended – usually sometime around 10:10 am. The bells cascade on events of state such as the passage of the Ottawa Treaty of the banning of land-mines, and call a mournful muffled prayer after such tragedies as the death of Princess Diana.

Memory Cards Complete Guide

Ever wondered what are these tiny chips? Confused by the names?
We are here to help you.

This article is about the various memory components available in the market for mobile phones.

Memory Stick

MS Memory Stick is a removable flash memory card format, launched by Sony in October 1998, and is also used in general to describe the whole family of Memory Sticks. This family includes the Memory Stick Pro, a revision that allows greater maximum storage capacity and faster file transfers speeds, and Memory Stick Duo, a small-form-factor version of the Memory Stick.

50.0 x 21.5 x 2.8 mm

Memory Stick Duo

MS Duo

31.0 × 20.0 × 1.6 mm

The Memory Stick Duo, which is slightly smaller than the competitive Secure digital format, was developed in response to Sony's need for a smaller flash memory card for pocket-sized digital cameras and cell phones, as well as Sony's PSP. Memory Stick Duos are available in all the same variants as their larger cousins ​​(normal ones limited to 128 MB, larger Pro Sticks, with and without High Speed ​​mode), and a simple adapter (often sold together with the Memory Stick Duo) allows a Duo to be used in any device that can accept their larger cousins.

Memory Stick Micro M2

15.0 x 12.5 x 1.2 mm

Sony announced a new Memory Stick format on 30 September 2005. The new Memory Stick M2 ("micro") measures 15 x 12.5 x 1.2 mm and could theoretically have 32GB in the future. Maximum transfer speed is 160MB / s. It will come with an adapter, much like the Duo Sticks, to ensure compatibility with current Pro devices.

Multi Media Card


32 x 24 x 1.5 mm

The MMC card or MultiMediaCard was introduced in 1997 by SanDisk Corporation and Siemens AG. At that point the MMC card was the smallest memory card, about the size of a postage stamp, in the market based on flash memory technology. The MMC card is very similar to the Secure Digital Memory Card, actually the SD Memory Card is based on the MMC card. They have almost the same form factor the only differences are that the SD Memory Cards are slightly thicker and they have a write protection switch.

Since the MMC card had slow transfer speed, 2.5 MB / sec, in comparison to other memory cards, mostly compared to SD Memory Card, a new high performance version of the MMC card was introduced in 2005 by the name MMCplus. The MMCplus has today the highest, up to 52 MB / sec, theoretical data transfer speed in the whole memory card industry.

The MultiMediaCard Association announced that by the end of 2005 the secureMMC application will only be available for the MMCplus and MMCmobile memory cards. The SecureMMC is a copyright protection application that features DRM, Digital Rights Management, and VPN, Virtual Private Network, capabilities.

Reduced Size Multi Media Card


16 x 24 x 1.5 mm

MMCmobile (RS-MMC)

RS-MMC, Reduced Size MultiMediaCard, was introduced in 2003 by the MultiMediaCard Association (MMCA) as the second form factor memory card in the MultiMediaCard family. The RS-MMC is a smaller version of the standard MMC card, approximately half in size, and was specifically designed to be used by mobile phones and other small portable devices.

Dual Voltage Reduced Size Multi Media Card


16 x 24 x 1.5 mm

In 2005 the Dual Voltage (DV) RS-MMC was introduced. It is basically the same card like the standard RS-MMC but operates with dual voltage, 1.8V and 3.3V, leading to lower power consumption which contributes to longer lasting battery life for the host devices. The DV RS-MMC and the RS-MMC are fully compatible with each other but since the time of the installation, the RS-MMC will not work. We recommend to always buy the Dual Voltage RS-MMC for being sure your memory card will function with the electronic device.

MMCmicro Card


12 x 14 x 1.1 mm

The MMCmicro, previously known as S-CARD introduced by Samsung, was adopted and introduced in 2005 by the MultiMediaCard Association (MMCA) as the third form factor memory card in the MultiMediaCard family. MMCmicro is the smallest, about the size of a fingernail, memory card in the MultiMediaCard family and among the smallest in the world. It was specifically designed for being used in mobile phones and other small portable devices.

The MMCmicro memory card is available with an adapter, MMCplus. This makes it not only compatible to all MMC and MMCplus slots but also to all SD Memory Card slots. It is important to keep in mind that music stored on MultiMediaCards my not being able to play back when inserted into a SD Memory Card slot due to the copyright protection features supported by the SD slots.

Since the MMCmicro is the latest memory card to be developed and introduced to the market it is not that compatible to many mobile phones and electronic devices yet. Still it is expected to be one of the memory card formats that will dominate in the mobile phone industry among the frontrunner microSD and the under development Memory Stick Micro.

Secure Digital Card


32 x 24 x 2.1 mm

The SD Memory Card or Secure Digital was introduced in 2001 by SanDisk Corporation, Matsushita (Panasonic) and Toshiba. The SD Memory Card was based on the MultiMediaCard, MMC, memory card standard and has almost the same form factor, the size of a postage stamp, the only differences are that the SD memory card is slightly thicker and has a write protection switch. Since MMC cards are thinner than SD Memory Cards they can be used in all SD Memory Card slots but not vice versa.

The SD Memory Card is today the most common used memory card. It can be found in most digital cameras, PDAs and in many other electronic devices. The SD Memory Card slots can be used for more than flash memory cards. The SDIO, Secure Digital In & Out, is the general name for the many expansion modules that can be found in the SD Memory Card's form factor. SDIO modules can be inserted in the slot and be used for other functions like Bluetooth adapters, GPS receivers, digital cameras, TV tuners, etc

miniSD Card


21.5 x 20 x 1.4 mm

The miniSD was introduced in 2003 by SanDisk Corporation in cooperation with Matsushita (Panasonic) and Toshiba. Later in that year the miniSD format was adapted by the SD Card Association as the second form factor memory card in the Secure Digital family. MiniSD is a smaller version of the SD memory Card format, about 60% smaller in volume, and offers the same benefits as the SD Memory Card expect of the writing protection switch.

MiniSD was designed specifically to be used in small portable electronic devices like digital cameras and mobile phones. But since all miniSD memory cards always come with a SD Memory Card adapter, they are compatible to all SD Memory Card slots and theby provide compatibility with the rapidly growing number of SD Memory Card compatible devices in the market.

MiniSD was the second, after SD Memory Card, memory card to be adapted by the SD Card Association, which today consists of three members. In 2005 the microSD was introduced as the third, and smallest, member of the Secure Digital family.

microSD Card also known as Transflash


11 x 15 x 1 mm

rashFlash, previously known as T-Flash, was introduced by SanDisk Corporation in 2004 as the world's smallest memory card, approximately the size of a fingernail. TransFlash was specifically designed for being used in mobile phones. Motorola was the first mobile phone manufacturer to adapt the TransFlash memory card standard.

In the 3rd quarter of 2005 TransFlash was adapted by the SD Card Association as the third form factor memory card in the Secure Digital family, after SD Memory Card and miniSD. After the adoption, TransFlash changed name to microSD. The microSD has exactly the same dimensions and specifications as the TransFlash and therefore both memory cards are completely compatible to each other.

Today the microSD is the most common used memory card in mobile phones and the SD Card Association's objective is to make microSD a de facto memory card standard for all mobile phones. All TransFlash and microSD cards always come with a SD Memory Card adapter, which makes them compatible with all SD Memory Card slots. The microSD is about 10% in size compared to SD Memory Card and about 30% compared to miniSD.

xD-Picture Card


20 x 25 x 1.7 mm

The xD-Picture Card was introduced in 2002 by Fuji Film and Olympus as a replacement to the older SmartMedia Card. It is produced exclusively by Toshiba and can be found branded only under the name of Fuji Film and Olympus.

The xD-Picture Card format was developed to be used in digital cameras and is more or less only used in Fuji Film and Olympus digital cameras. Like SmartMedia Card, the xD-Picture Card does not incorporate a controller chip which allows it to have a small form factor but at the same time making it dependent to the host device's controller chip.

Ted's Side of the Story

It has been 45 years since Ted Kennedy's car plunged into the waters of Chappaquiddick. A young woman, Mary Jo Kopechne, drowned that night. Kennedy himself has been dead for nearly five years, but the event is still capable of provoking passionate debts.

With only a few exceptions, Kennedy spent the seven days immediately following the incident in seclusion. When he was seen, he was wearing a neck brace, a silent reminder of the accident. He emerged 45 years ago today – sans neck brace – to deliver a national address on the matter.

Since Bobby Kennedy's assassination a year earlier, Kennedy was broadly considered as a sure thing if he wanted the Democratic presidential nomination; After the accident, the conventional wisdom was that he was damaged goods – damaged beyond repair.

Before the Chappaquiddick incident, Kennedy was often mentioned as a potential Democratic candidate for 1972. Even after Chappaquiddick, his name was still mentioned in connection with the 1976 race. He chose not to seek the nomination in either year, and it appeared his presidential ambitions were really behind him.

Incredibly, he did seek the presidency – in 1980 – but it always seemed to me he did so more out of a sense of personal obligation than anything else.

And he picked a year to run in which it was almost certain that he would not succeed. He ran against an incumbent Democrat, Jimmy Carter, in a year that was shaping up to be a Republican year. Running against an oath from one's own party has almost always been a "Man of La Mancha" -esque proposition – and, predictably, at least in the context of history, Kennedy did not defeat the incumbent.

But there was more to it than that. Early in the campaign for the nomination, Carter benefited from a rally-'round-the-flag mentality following the takeover of the American embassy in Iran and the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan.

If Kennedy had beaten Carter, it is far from certain that he would have defeated the Republican nominee, Ronald Reagan. In hindsight, it really seemed the tide was running against all Democrats in 1980.

Before any votes had been cast, Kennedy's commitment was brought into question when he had a rambling answer to a pretty straight-forward question posed by CBS 'Roger Mudd – "Why do you want to be president?"

But on July 25, 1969, he did not speak about the presidency. He spoke about Chappaquiddick. Earlier in the day, he had entered a plea of ​​guilty at the Edgartown, Mass., Courthouse; He was given a suspended sentence and his driver's license was taken away.

Thoughts of the presidency probably were part of the equation, though, particularly when you examine the issues he chose to address when he spoke before the cameras:

  • His wife, Joan, had not accompanied him that weekend due to "reasons of health." Her absence had been frequently mentioned, and Kennedy apparently felt obliged to say that she was pregnant (she suffered a miscarriage shortly thereafter).
  • He denied the "broadly circulated suspicions of immoral conduct" by himself and Kopechne.
  • He denied that he had been under the influence of alcohol while he was driving.
  • He acknowledged that his actions after the accident "made no sense to [him] at all."
  • He said he had been told by his doctors that he had suffered a conversation and shock, but he did not use that as an excuse for his actions.
  • He said it was "indefensible" that he did not contact authorities after the accident.
  • He told viewers that he had enlisted the help of two friends at the party to help try to rescue her.
  • He said that "all kinds of scrambled thoughts" went through his head that, in hindsight, seem like nothing short of denial – including the idea that Kopechne may have saved herself somehow and if "some awful curse actually did hang over all the Kennedys. "

"The speech was not a success," wrote William Manchester. "He answered questions that had not been asked … He also appeared to insist that the damage to his career was more momentous than [Kopechne's] death." That, I suppose, remained to be seen.

Garage Door

If you've ever driven through Levittown, Long Island, you've seen the paradigm of post-World War II housing. Designed for the young parents who were giving birth to the baby boom generation, Levittown homes were built in accordance with the principles of pre-fabricated housing constructed for servicemen, but they incorporated the "must-haves" of post-war life: big yards , Modern appliances, a television antenna, and other conveniences. Promotional photos for Levittown over a period of years show that the evolution of the garage followed major trends in the changing American lifestyle.

The earliest house plans from the 1940s show boxy, Cape Cod-style homes with a living room, dining room, bath, and two bedrooms. There were no driveways: the single car owned by most families was parked on the street. By 1950, the company brochure offered five homes in a modified Cape Cod / Ranch style, each with a driveway leading to a single attached carport. And in the sister suburb of Levittown, PA, in 1954, the developers presented a variety of homes that incorporated the latest essential in home design – an enclosed garage.

Today, if you drive through even the most moderate suburban neighborhood, you're likely to see a gaping, two-or three-garage garage opening directly onto the street, with living quarters sprawling behind and above. The garage has become the façade of the modern American home.

The growth in the importance of the garage has coincided with the presence of more and more cars in the typical American family. When Henry Ford lowered the price of his model T so that "the workers who build them can afford to buy them," the option of owning an automobile became a reality for families of modest means, and through the decades from 1910 to 1930 car ownership Grow steadily.

Auto sales fell as World War II limited both income and the availability of raw materials, but millions more women learned to drive as they filled jobs previously held by servicemen. By the time the subdivision building boom began shortly after the war, almost any young couple could afford a house for $ 8,000 and an $ 800-dollar station wagon. Typically, after driving her husband to the commuter train station, the housewife used the car to shop and run errands. (African American and other minority families, including Jews in many suburbs, were shut out of housing opportunities by restrictive covenants in the North and Jim Crow laws in the South. But that's another story.)

Soon, though, a single car was not enough: Dad wanted the family car, and Mom needed her own. By the 1960s, it was not uncommon for a teen to get a vehicle – often a grandparent's old car – for his 16th birthday. Instead of parking on the street or under a single carport, a family now needed at least a double garage plus room to park a third or even fourth vehicle. Today, in addition to a garage for two cars (or, more likely, one car plus an attic's worth of clutter), many suburban and rural homes include an additional, oversized garage for the RV.

Garage doors have changed, too. The earliest ones in the late 19th century were simply barn doors that allowed a farmer to bring a horse-drawn buggy into the garage for loading and unloading or storage out of the weather. They hinged outward or rolled sideways on steel tracks like a sliding closet door and were used for mechanized vehicles – tractors, cars, and trucks – as they came into wider use. Carriage homes, originally built by the wealthy for horses and carriages, also began to hold automobiles.

By the early 1920s, as more and more middle-class families could afford Model Ts, a modified version of the garage appeared. Usually a small shed (often only eight or ten feet wide), the garage was not quite enough for a sliding door. A single hinged door would be too heavy and ungainly to move, so a split, hinged door, each half three or four feet wide and seven to eight feet tall, was used instead. These old wooden doors can still be seen in rural areas; They often look home, with small windowpanes and one-by-six-inch diagonal cross-braces across the front. But their weight put great stress on hinges, screws, and the frame, and, when there was snow on the ground, it had to be shoveled out of the way before the doors could swing open.

The invention of the articulated (folding) door was the first real innovation in garage doors. A door split into hinged vertical sections could slide or roll back into the garage itself. In 1921, Mr. CG Johnson designed an overhead garage door with horizontal articulation. Lifted from the bottom, the door roled up and out of the way, each section leveling out as it followed the curve of parallel steel tracks. Five years later Johnson invented the electric opener, to assist people without the strength to raise the heavy door. Johnson's company became the Overhead Door Corporation, still a leading manufacturer of garage doors.

Later developments included the slab door raised on a strong track, and doors using lightweight materials, like Styrofoam-insulated steel, and steel alloys and fiberglass that roll into a compact space – the roll-down security doors seen at many businesses today.

Along with changes in technology came changes in style. As garages were gradually incorporated into houses – that is, going from a separate building to an attached one to part of the structure itself – the look and palette of garage doors evolved. No longer limited to the red-stained barn-door model or the white paint of early 20th-century design, they began to echo French Provincial, English Manor, Colonial, and California Ranch homes, among other popular architectural styles.

The modern garage, far from being an outbuilding or an afterthought, is as much a part of the typical American home as a family room and kitchen. And, in accordance with that status, garage doors today come in all the materials and styles favored by homeowners: traditional wood – with or without glass inserts and with or without resin impregnation – articulated steel and alloys, fiberglass, vinyl coatings, and aluminum.

Review on the First Episode of Gene Simmon's Family Jewels

A & E is the place to watch the latest version of the family reality show genre started by the Osbournes on MTV. However, there are a few major differences between Gene Simmon's Family Jewels, and the Osbournes, the zany British family led by rocker Ozzy Osbourne and boisterous wife Sharon. The Osbournes enjoyed such a huge audience mainly because the viewers really felt like they were getting a true, fly-on-the-wall view of one of rock's first families. Ozzy, Sharon, Jack and Kelly really never came across as actors; They did not need to. Their own reality was so completely odd and unpredictable that watching paint dry in the Osbourne household was a privilege. However, Kiss frontman Gene "The Tongue" Simmons comes across as the lead actor in a show where his family looks to him to identify their individual roles, especially Simmons' common-law wife, Shannon Tweed, who was once Playboy Playmate of the year . In the premiere episode we see Shannon trying to one up Gene, who announces (to the cameras) that he is planning a surprise party for her birthday. The kids respond to his announcement in a predictable fashion – with disbelief. How on Earth would daddy Gene, which clueless approach to the real world (we see him bathing the family dog ​​by throwing the dog into the pool and struggling to run a dishwasher), know the very basics of party planning? Also, given the theme of the first episode – that Gene is truly the King of his manse, to what all must defer – would Gene be unselfish enough to give his time and energy to his common law wife?

Gene and Shannon have been together for 23 years, and remain (in Gene's view) "happily unmarried." We learn quickly that Gene's reluctance to commit to the woman who has borne both of the couple's children is a source of amusement to the two teenagers, Nick and Sophie, and a source of distress to Shannon. But, does Gene care? Not if you believe what you see at the outside of the episode. Gene says to the camera "Marriage is an institution. You also have to be committed to it. If that does not sound like a nuthouse," he says, studying his nails, "nothing does." Shannon's answer to Gene's unique attitude is "If someone does not marry you after 23 years, it means you're a loser." Could you imagine Sharon Osbourne being so self-effacing? Are you kidding – Sharon was the ultimate matriarch! Shannon's own teenage son even chimes in to support his wayward father. "It's good being a bachelor," he says laughing. Sad. Another future divorcee or serial monogamist in the making, compliments of Gene Simmons.

Gene then takes the cameras along for an all out bachelor night in Vegas. Just for the heck of it, he leaves his family and goes to Hooters. The girls are draped all over Gene, seeing a human cash register because there is not much else to look at. We see the Alpha male at his coolest – driving the bubbleheads around in a limousine all the while spouting out pathetic lines such as, "I believe that I should have as many women as possible and I believe you should have as many women as possible. " Please. I am humilated for him, and for his whole family who support his delusional reality in which he is front and center. When Gene appears at home, Shannon asks how Vegas was. His reply? "There were lots of boobs and they were all bouncing into each other." Yawn. At the end of the day, Shannon pulls a big ol 'staged surprise on Gene and plans an ambush wedding. I'm too bored to even write another word about it, but if you're worried, Gene is still the man, the myth and the unmarried legend. In his own eyes, at least.

Hints on How to Take Great Pictures of Your Yorkshire Terrier Supermodel

Would not it be great to have a picture of your adorable, loyal Yorkshire Terrier on a tee shirt, a sweatshirt, a screensaver, a mouse pad, or a coffee mug? By following a few simple tips for taking outstanding pictures, you'll be able to take high quality photos of your pet with an inexpensive digital camera, a disposable 35 mm camera or even a camera phone.

Taking pictures of your Yorkshire Terrier can be a fun activity for you and your dog to do together. This beautiful breed, with its silky coat, is a natural subject for portrait photography. Your dog can look terrific in pictures wherever you use the very latest in high-tech digital cameras or an inexpensive camera phone.

Taking digital photos can save you a ton of money over old-fashioned prints from 35-mm. Film. With digital photography, you only pay for the pictures that you want to print. Blurry shots, overexposed frames, red eyes and other rejected frames all disappear into the digital trashcan with a single click.

Your dog only has a certain amount of patience, so get everything ready beforehand. Put fresh high-capacity memory storage card in your digital camera, replace the batteries and carry fresh batteries with you.

Choose a setting for your pictures. For an indoor setting, make sure there is plenty of light shining on your Yorkshire Terrier, and arrange any backdrops you will need so you can grab them quickly between shots. If you are taking pictures outdoors, secure the area for your Yorkshire Terrier's safety. A fenced back yard makes a great outdoor setting.

As soon as you pick up the camera, you have your hands full. You need to devote your attention to framing the shot and operating the camera, so ask someone to help you. Choose someone who gets along with your dog, and who your dog likes. Taking pictures together can be a fun adventure for the three of you. Serving refreshments for the people and the dog will help make the session more enjoyable. Take plenty of breaks to keep your dog from tiring out. Thank your assistant after the session is over by sending him or her one of the great Yorkshire Terrier pictures you took with your assistant's help.

Nothing is worse than taking great picture of your Yorkshire Terrier without noticing that you have a cluttered background, with laundry, dishes or newspapers competing for attention with your dog. To avoid clutter, use a solid-colored background to make your pictures the best they can be. Another way to have a spectacular background in your Yorkshire Terrier pictures is to use a chromatic green backdrop. With a chromatic green background, your background disappears digitally, and you can insert your Yorkshire Terrier into virtually any drop you can find. You can add surf, turf or snow to your picture without every going to the beach, the park, or the mountain.

The best Yorkshire Terrier pictures all seem to be at the dog's eye level. Do not be afraid to get down on the floor with your dog and take pictures, or set your dog on a tabletop or bed to raise its height. Remember, safety first! With these great tips, soon you'll be taking amazing pictures of your dog.

How Secure Are You Around "IoT"?

"The number of Internet-connected devices is growing rapidly and is expected to reach 50 billion by 2020."

This data is overwhelming and testifies the importance and reach of IoT. When we talk about IoT in general, we mean all those devices that communicate and can be accessed via the Internet based on their IP addresses. These "talking devices" are widely used in industrial machine-to-machine (M2M) communication, smart energy grids, home and building automation, vehicle to vehicle communication and wearable computing devices.

However, of late, this shift from desktop PC to mobile and now to IoT devices have been attracting tremendous malicious activity. All these internet-connected devices create access points with which hackers can infiltrate any network. That's a concern for any business, because these devices are also starting to show up at the corporate office for use in conference rooms, executive suites, and even as a low-cost building security camera system.

It sees now that the diversity of cyber threats mirrors the diversity of IoT devices. Devices with "always on" network connectivity are enabling new types of attacks that have not been seen in the past; These devices represent a new set of targets for potential data exposure and crime.

"On Friday October 21, 2016, a massive distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attack was launched against Dyn, an internet infrastructure company." The attack was so massive, it blocked access to very popular websites, including Twitter, Amazon, Netflix, and many others.

"A similar attack was unleashed on 20th September 2016, on the security news site, KrebsOnSecurity." That attack was transported out by some 145,000 IoT devices and was described as a giant botnet hijacking internet-connected things, including smart cameras and light bulbs.

These attacks caused significant disruption and exposed the havoc that IoT security breech can create. Experts claim that the industry is not doing enough to protect these devices. The main problem with IoT devices is that their manufacturers have been slow to implement security. Many devices, like security monitoring cameras, are produced as inexpensively as possible and are accordingly equipped with the most basic software, which often can not be updated.

New challenges arise as new device categories like smartwatches communicate with the internet. More and more attacks on companies have started specifically against individual "smart-things" equipped employees, necessitating the integration of personal devices into a security strategy.

When we are letting each 'thing' connect to the global future, the confidentiality of data and privacy of information have to be given prime importance. They should, for example, define which devices are permitted on the company network and what data exchange with the network or the internet is wanted. Unwanted traffic can be preceded with the right security technology.

"Dan Lyon, the principal consultant at security-as-a-service firm Cigital, says, businesses need to start evaluating IoT products not only for the benefit they provide but also for embedded security features."

The Internet of Things (IoT) may be exciting, but these serious technical challenges need to be addressed. With technology, specifically IoT entering our personal spaces, we need to redefine our risk metrics and deploy actionable cybersecurity checks on rapidly evolving threats. To enjoy a risk-free technological ease, we must ensure that adequate security and privacy is available before the technology gets deployed and becomes part of our daily lives.

Practical Tips for Taking a Good Passport Photo

Getting a high-quality passport photo doesn’t need to be an arduous and time-consuming process. A simple solution is to take the photo yourself to avoid the time and expense of using the automatic machines at airports and train stations. Here are a few tips for taking a passport photo:

Daylight is best

The best time to take the passport photo is in the day when there is a lot of natural light. Stand somewhere that gives plenty of natural light to avoid shadows on the background or face. It is important to use flat lighting to minimize the risk of a photo being rejected due to shadows.

Facial expression

Take the photos while holding a natural, relaxed facial expression. Make sure to avoid blinking, smiling, or any other expressions. Use the camera’s self-timer and take several snaps and choose the one that is most appropriate.

Plan what to wear

It helps to keep it professional and wear a collared shirt or blouse. Try to avoid the loose-fitting clothes that don’t give the best look in photographs. A light-colored shirt is great for those with dark hair, while a dark top is practical for light hair. Also, it may be practical to groom yourself. Get the hair cut if necessary and wear neutral make up to stop a photo looking unflattering and garish.

Your surroundings

It is essential to have neutral surroundings when taking the passport photo. A light-colored background is the preferred option. Avoid dark or bright colors for your surroundings. For instance, a red background can create a luminescence effect that is likely to reflect back onto you. Try to recreate something similar to a photo booth with the clean and light background.

Use passport photo software

The passport photo software makes it really easy to click and select a preferred picture and have it printed out in a matter of minutes. The actual photo can be taken using a digital camera with a timer feature, or have a family member take the appropriate picture. The software gives the option to edit, crop or rotate the image to match the exact criteria of the passport. However, it is essential to avoid any post production that manipulates your appearance because this will likely mean the photo gets rejected.

Once the editing is done, use a high-quality photo paper with a decent resolution at the same onscreen size. The photo must be free of marks, creases and tears, so make sure to avoid using low-quality paper.